Resource compilation: Responding to the threat of Anopheles stephensi invasion
In October 2019, the WHO Global Malaria Program (GMP) released a Vector alert which identified the invasion of Anopheles stephensi as a major potential threat to malaria control and elimination in the Horn of Africa and Sri Lanka. Due to the detection of An. stephensi in other parts of Africa, this alert was later updated in December, 2019 and January 2023. A WHO initiative was also launched in September 2022 to support an effective response to An. stephensi on the African continent.
These documents released by WHO offer guidance on surveillance, detection, control and potential elimination of An. stephensi. They also encourage a harmonized approach to mapping and reporting areas in which it has been detected and not found.
This MESA compilation brings together a list of resources available:
- WHO initiative to stop the spread of Anopheles stephensi in Africa (2023)
- Vector alert: Anopheles stephensi invasion and spread in Africa and Sri Lanka (2023)
- WHO initiative to stop the spread of Anopheles stephensi in Africa (2022)
- Global framework for the response to malaria in urban areas (2022)
- Vector alert: Anopheles stephensi invasion and spread: Horn of Africa, the Republic of the Sudan and surrounding geographical areas, and Sri Lanka: information note (2019)
WHO meeting reports
- Partners convening: a regional response to the invasion of Anopheles stephensi in Africa (2023)
- Meeting report of the WHO technical consultation on the spread of Anopheles stephensi (2019)
- Invasive species reporting form – WHO form to report detection of invasive Anopheles vector species.
- Malaria Threats Map – WHO mapping tool to track Vector occurrence of An. stephensi either native, invasive or not found.
- The spread of Anopheles stephensi in Africa (2023)
- Malaria response in Urban Areas (2023)
- Updated WHO guidance for monitoring resistance in mosquito vectors (2022)
- Regional Online Training of Trainers on Vector Surveillance and Control (2022) - Session 5: Invasive Anopheles stephensi, an additional challenge.
- Presentation 1 - Invasive Anopheles stephensi
- Presentation 2 - Surveillance of Anopheles mosquitoes with special attention to Anopheles stephensi
- Presentation 3 - Tracking the spread of An. stephensi in the Horn of Africa: A molecular approach
- Presentation 4 - Surveillance and control of Anopheles stephensi in Iran
Resources and reference material:
- MESA Forum on Anopheles stephensi Q&A document
- MESA Deep Dive on Anopheles stephensi
- PMI Anopheles stephensi resource page
- PMI Anopheles stephensi fact sheet
- PMI Action Plan to respond to the threat of Anopheles stephensi in Africa
- Rollback Malaria Joint Vector Control Working Group and Multi Sectoral Working Group Consensus Statement
- Social and Behavior Change Guidance for Anopheles stephensi in Africa
Detection and Identification tools:
- Global Mosquito Observations database - For mosquito surveillance in communities by individual citizens using observation data
- Molecular tools for early detection of An. stephensi invasive mosquitoes (Singh et al. 2023)
- Key to Afrotropical Anopheles mosquitoes including An. stephensi morphological key (Coetzee 2020)
- Sequence-based identification of Anopheles species in eastern Ethiopia (Carter et al. 2019)
Insecticides - resistance and efficacy:
- Comparative analysis of the larvicidal activity of temephos (EC50) and novaluaron (EC10) to control Anopheles stephensi in Sri Lanka (Justine Jude et al. 2023)
- Laboratory-based efficacy evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and temephos larvicides against larvae of Anopheles stephensi in ethiopia (Abebe Teshome et al. 2023)
- Insecticide resistance in Anopheles stephensi in Somali Region, eastern Ethiopia (Solomon Yared et al. 2020)
Peer reviewed publications:
- Modeling marine cargo traffic to identify countries in Africa with greatest risk of invasion by Anopheles stephensi (Jordan Ahn et al. 2023)
- Anopheles stephensi in Africa requires a more integrated response (Abraham Mnzava et al. 2022)
- PMI Vectorlink Video - Addressing the threat of Anopheles stephensi (August 2023). French version available.
- Malaria Minute podcast (JHSPH): EXTENDED - The Invasive Mosquito Threatening to Worsen Malaria in Africa (with Eric Ochomo and Seth Irish)
Virtual events and conferences:
- MESA Forum - Responding to the threat of An. stephensi invasion in Africa (Feb 2023). English, Arabic and French recordings.
- Ifakara Masterclass Edition 41, hosted by IHI and MESA - An. stephensi in Africa (Jan 2023)
- Ifakara Masterclass Edition 21- Aedes & Stephensi (April 2021)