Last Updated: 12/06/2024

A hybrid effectiveness-implementation study to assess the feasibility, acceptability and protective efficacy of implementing seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Nampula province, Mozambique


  1. To determine the effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in terms of its reduction in incidence of malaria infection among children aged 3–59 months
  2. To determine chemopreventive efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (SPAQ) when used for SMC in Nampula province, Mozambique, and the extent to which efficacy is impacted by drug resistance and drug concentrations
  3. To investigate the presence and change of SPAQ and piperaquine resistance markers over time as a result of SMC implementation
  4. To understand the impact of the SMC implementation model, determining process, costing and acceptability outcomes for the intervention
Principal Institution

Malaria Consortium, United Kingdom

Principal Investigators / Focal Persons

Balthazar Candrinho

Rationale and Abstract


Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a highly effective community-based intervention to prevent malaria infections in areas where the malaria burden is high and transmission occurs mainly during the rainy season. In Africa, so far, SMC has been implemented in the Sahel region. Mozambique contributes 4% of global malaria cases, and malaria represents one out first four causes of death in the country. Based on recommendations in the Malaria Strategic Plan, Malaria Consortium, in partnership with the Mozambican National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), initiated a phased SMC implementation study in the northern province of Nampula. It is as a two-year implementation study, with the first phase, conducted in 2020-2021, focusing on the feasibility and acceptability of SMC and the second phase on demonstrating impact. This paper describes phase 2 of the implementation study.


This type 2 hybrid effectiveness-implementation study uses a convergent mixed-methods approach. SMC will be implemented in four monthly cycles between December 2021 and March 2022 in four districts of Nampula province. Phase 2 will include four components: a cluster randomized control trial (cRCT) to establish confirmed malaria cases, a prospective cohort to determine the chemoprevention efficacy of the antimalarials used for SMC, and whether drug concentrations or resistance influence the duration of protection, a resistance markers study in children aged 3–59 months to describe changes in resistance marker prevalence over time. Finally, a process evaluation will determine feasibility and acceptability of SMC. Ethical approval was granted by Comité Nacional de Bioética para a Saùde (CNBS) of the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Mozambique (Ref: 803/CNBS/21) and by Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Ref: HCB/2021/0944). The trial has been registered on (Ref: SMCMOZPHASE2).


Ethical approval was granted by Comité Nacional de Bioética para a Saùde (CNBS) of MoH of Mozambique (Ref: 803/CNBS/21) and by Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Ref: HCB/2021/0944). Data collection begins in mid-January 2022, and data analysis is expected to be completed by August 2022.


This is the first effectiveness trial of SMC implemented in Mozambique. The findings from this trial will be crucial to policy change and program expansion to other suitable geographies outside the Sahel. The chemoprevention efficacy cohort study is a unique opportunity to better understand SMC drug efficacy in this new SMC environment.

Trial Registration

The trial has been registered on (Ref: NCT05186363).

Study Design

An implementation research study, using a Type II hybrid effectiveness-implementation study design, evaluating the effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes whilst collecting information on implementation.


Jul 2021 — Jul 2022

Total Project Funding


Funding Details
GiveWell, United States

Philanthropic donations received as a result of being awarded Top Charity status by GiveWell
Project Site



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