Last Updated

12 Jul 2022

Genetic causes and delimitation of carbamate and organophosphate resistance in Anopheles arabiensis, the primary malaria vector in Sudan


This project will investigate carbamate and organophosphate resistance mechanisms in Sudanese An. arabiensis and develop novel assays, which, in the absence of the G119S mutation, are anticipated to target variable expression of genes for metabolic detoxification and/or cuticular resistance. Distribution of resistance phenotypes and mechanisms will be assessed in the light of population genetic structure, which could be unusually pronounced in Sudan, where distinct melanic forms are found. 

Principal Investigator
Rationale and Abstract

Malaria is responsible for approximately 44000 deaths annually in Sudan. Current control relies on targeting malaria vectors, primarily Anopheles arabiensis, via pyrethroid-treated long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance are relatively well studied, but the genetic basis of carbamates and organophosphate resistance, the most feasible alternative classes for IRS, is poorly understood in An. arabiensis, which lack a highly-predictive mutation (Ace-1 G119S) found in other mosquitoes. Since resistance to both classes is present in Sudan this knowledge gap is a significant concern for resistance management planning.

Outcomes of the project of direct relevance to disease control include assessment of population connectivity and its relationship with resistance mechanisms, allowing prediction of future spread, and the provision of monitoring tools via field-quantified mechanistic assays for IRS insecticides.


2016 Apr - 2018 Oct

Total Project Funding


Funding Details

Masters Fellowships in Public Health & Tropical Medicine; 128,282 GBP
Project Site

Deep Dives