A quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of Malaria Camps as part of the Odisha State malaria elimination drive (India ICEMR)
The Odisha State Malaria Control Program (India) has introduced 'malaria camps' where teams of health workers visit villages to educate the population, enhance vector control with long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), and perform village-wide screening with rapid diagnostic tests and treatment for malaria.
The long-term goal of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of malaria camps (MCs) by determining if they reduce the prevalence of clinical and asymptomatic malaria, and to characterize malaria transmission in MCs.
In addition, the optimal implementation and efficacy of MCs will be further determined from assessment of the social factors affecting the coverage of MCs.
Study Type: Interventional (Clinical Trial)
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment (Quasi-experimental cluster-assigned stepped-wedge study)
Masking: None (Open Label)
Estimated Enrollment: 2700 participants
Malaria Camps combine focused screening and treatment with intensified vector control. Malaria screenings are conducted with a Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) that targets both P.f. and P.v. infections, and RDT-positive subjects identified during the visits are told to seek the standard of care as per Govt. of India guidelines, through their local health worker (called an ASHA) or public health center (PHC).
In particular, the program includes one round of testing and treatment for the whole village population before the monsoon season, followed by one or two rounds of screening and treatment of fever cases only during / after the monsoon season.
In the first year, villages will be assigned across three study arms:
- Arm 1: receive new MCs
- Arm 2: control with no MCs but with standard malaria control
- Arm 3: villages already in receipt of MCs prior to study initiation (to assess longer term effects)
In the second year, both Arm 1 and Arm 2 villages will receive the MC intervention (i.e. non-randomized stepped-wedge design).
MC effectiveness will be evaluated from epidemiologic surveys and PCR detection of malaria prevalence. Factors affecting the implementation of the intervention will be assessed by qualitative interviews, focus group discussions and cost-effectiveness evaluations.